Cake History Month 3: Understanding Recipes

We all know that a recipe is a list of instructions for how to prepare something, usually food. But what “we all know” has changed over time, and the modern-day recipe is actually the result of an effort by Victorian women who wanted to codify and illuminate cookery for the average housewife.

For most of the time that humans have been cooking, knowing how to cook was a skill that at least one person in most households had, but the level of that skill varied widely. At the lowest level, people who could make just enough edible food to survive, they probably weren’t working from a formal recipe, but from home training. Someone else showed them how to start a fire, how to crack open a nut or cut up an animal, and from there, they could keep themselves alive a little while.

But there were also cooks with a high enough level of competency that we’d call them “chefs”, particularly in larger cities, in more advanced cultures. Written records from Babylonia, Mesopotamia, and ancient Egypt (about 3700 years ago) show that people were employed to cook for rich and royal families, for temples, and for large institutions. These chefs were trained in  vocational programs with one generation of chefs passing their knowledge along to the next. Head chefs had assistants, helpers, servants, and runners to bring ingredients in from the market or take food out of the kitchen to the servers.

A depiction of the royal bakery from an engraving in the tomb of Ramesses III in the Valley of the Kings. There are many types of loaves, including ones that are shaped like animals. (20th dynasty.)

It’s around this time that we start to see written recipes. There are hieroglyphs in Egypt depicting the way food is produced, prepared, and presented, and we’ve found an Akkadian tablet from 1700 BCE [1] showing that chefs wanted to get into writing a recent innovation in cooking: boiling and sauteing in water, instead of roasting and baking. Cooking wasn’t new but those staple foods–meat (including fish and fowl), vegetables, and grains–were being prepared in a new way, and that warranted writing the recipes down, so new chefs and kitchen assistants would have a reference.

This a perfect example of what recipes were used for. They’re not meant for people who already know what they’re doing so well it’s second-hand. Because recipes are supplemental knowledge, they’re often incomplete, which is the most important thing you need to know about recipes from before the mid-1800s. Recipes often only included the extra bits.

Think of any cake recipe you might find in a modern cookbook. There’s usually a little section at the bottom for “variations”. After you’ve already read about how to make a basic vanilla cake, you might be advised that you can add chocolate chips to the batter if you want, or how to adjust your recipe if you’re baking at a high altitude. Those variations used to be all a recipe was. If you knew how to roast a whole chicken, for example, a recipe might tell you, “Coat a whole chicken in honey and spices before roasting it in a medium oven.” The honey and spices part (and sometimes, the spices weren’t specified) is the part that’s different from your average everyday roasting a chicken part. Note how it doesn’t tell you how to prepare the chicken for roasting, how long to cook it it, or what a “medium oven” is. You’re supposed that already.

So it’s not a surprise that our earliest recorded recipes read as incomplete. You have to know what those chefs would already have known before starting the recipe. As we examine recipes going forward, keep in mind that sometimes we’re going to have to recreate it in steps: first, learning what the pastry chef of the day already knew, and then learning how that recipe built on that prior knowledge.

Until at least the 1700s, cookbooks–which grew out of recipes shared between upper-class chefs–weren’t regulated or organized in any particular way, and rarely contained basic cookery knowledge. There was just enough in there to explain what you were doing to someone else who had an idea of what they were doing. (Note to writers: do this with your magic texts, too. Novices should not be able to read them and instantly know everything.) It’s in the 1800s that a combination of literacy among women of all classess, and a strong desire to meet the “standards” of your neighbors, brought us cookbooks aimed at giving banquet-level culinary knowledge to home cooks. By the end of the 1800s, several competing food writers–Eliza Acton, Isabella Beeton, and our Lady of the American Kitchen, Fannie Farmer–had popular books out.

A typical Victorian kitchen

Farmer’s famous The Boston Cooking School Cookbook didn’t just contain almost 1900 recipes; the book also included instructions for how to make dough, warm an oven, find ingredients, and much of anything else a home cook with no school training would need to consistently recreate those foods.[2] It’s considered the first truly detailed culinary guide.

Later, our Lady of the TV Kitchen, Julia Child, brought French cuisine to American cooks with the help of Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle, ushering in another sort of French Revolution. By the 1970s, when Julia became queen of public broadcasting, “everyone” knew what a recipe was. Everyone knew how to read a recipe, and what you’d expect to find in it.

I was born the last year of The French Chef, Julia’s first television show, so I was born into this world where “everyone knows about recipes”. But the age of codified cooking is really not very old at all, and for most of the cakes we’re going to explore, it isn’t a limited access to money or ingredients which kept the average home cooking from baking them.

Cake baking was a secret kind of knowledge, too.

[1] Jean Bottéro and Teresa Lavender Fagan, The Oldest Cuisine in the World: Cooking in Mesopotamia (2004).

[2] Fannie Merritt Farmer, The Boston cooking-school cook book (1911). Read it online here.

Also: Check out Fannie’s Last Supper, a documentary (now on Netflix) which shows Christopher Kimball and his team recreating dishes from Farmer’s cookbook, and the massive effort that required.

Cake History Month 2: Flours

The most obvious ingredient in cake, one of the few that must be present for a thing to be a cake, is flour. You can make cakes without eggs, without sugar or honey, and with different different types of leavening, but the flour is the binder and the base of a cake.

A flour is a powder ground from a plant; the major baking flours across the world are cereal grains. The five most common types of culinary flours are also among the oldest:

  • Wheat: Used worldwide, and is the most common baking flour in North America and Western Europe. Wheat contains gluten, a protein that helps bread (and cake) dough bind together, trapping the expanding gas created by yeast and other leavening agents, so the dough rises.
  • Rice: Ground from rice kernels, this gluten-free rice has been popular in Asia for thousands of years, and is growing popular around the world as an ingredient in gluten-free foods. (“Glutenous” rice is stickier, but doesn’t actually contain gluten.)
  • Rye: A low gluten (but not gluten-free) flour common in breads, particularly in Eastern Europe, and in places where wheat doesn’t grow well because the soil is too sandy or peaty. Rye is also hardier than most wheats, able to survive even under a layer of snow. It’s not used for cake as often as wheat because of its strong flavor.
  • Barley: As a flour for baking, barley has been used around the world; it was cultivated around the same time as wheat in the Middle East, and in China and India a short time later. However, barley is most useful to baking as a malt–it’s been an ingredient of beer since ancient times, and its yeast is used as a leavening for breads and cakes.
  • Corn: Cultivated for at least 10,000 years, maize is a popular staple food in Mesoamerica, and gluten-free corn flour is one of its earliest uses. After the colonization of these lands by Spanish invaders, corn was introduced to Europe as well–though Spaniards worried it wasn’t nutritious because it wasn’t native to Europe, and wouldn’t use it as a substitute flour for communion wafers even after forcing the indigenous populations to convert to Catholicism, because Catholic doctrine stated only wheat could be transubstantiated into the body of Christ. [1] Corn flour is rarely used for cakes, though there are some interesting exceptions.

The way to a baker’s heart is through her flours…

Flour developed almost immediately after the beginning of agriculture, but how it was processed has evolved over the millennia [2]. Early bakers ground the grains by hand between stones, and this is true all over the world, for thousands of years. Romans experimented with water-driven mills, and they were popular for a while, but mechanical flour mills became mainstream in Europe in the middle ages with the introduction of the windmill, which probably originated in Persia a few centuries before.

By then, in Europe at least, the home cook could get wheat flour pre-ground, though the quality depended on the mill, the harvest, even the weather. Having access to mill-ground wheat didn’t necessarily mean that the average family had better food. They just had it without the extra work of grinding it themselves, and that savings in time made a huge difference in the (mostly female) cooks’ lives.

London’s first steam mill was erected in 1786, which moved flour production into the industrial age, which now produce hundreds of types of flour, billions of pounds a year. Now, getting flour is as easy as picking it up from the store, or ordering it off the internet. Now, we have a choice in what type of flour we want to use in our baking, and there are recipes to go with every choice. But think back to those earliest bakers, who had to bring wheat or corn or rice in from the field… who had to dry it, and grind it–by hand, pushing the kernels into a powder with a rock–for hours, just to get enough flour to make a loaf of bread.

When a serving of bread is the product of hours of work, how much more special then is cake?

[1] Rebecca Earle, The Body of the Conquistador: Food, Race, and the Colonial Experience in Spanish America, 1492-1700. New York: Cambridge University Press 2012, pp. 17, 151.


Cake History Month 1: What is cake, and why is it important?

Cake, cake, baby

At its most basic definition, a cake is a sweetened dessert bread that is cooked. It’s more than a bread, which can be simple or complex in its own ways, because of the addition or refinement of ingredients, including sweeteners. Cake is different than some other desserts because of the preparation, which begins with a liquid-and-flour batter and often includes baking in a medium heat oven.

Cake is not congealed, frozen, candied, brittled, or eaten raw. Cake is not a new invention either; it arrived on the culinary scene somewhere close to the discovery of breadmaking, way back in prehistory. And cake is not an American product. It’s not a European invention. It is not a Western dessert. It is, at its heart, a global food, a worldwide celebration of bountiful harvests, or pious devotion, or shared moments of love, and loss.

To talk about cake is to talk about the history of cooking and food production, cornerstones of civilization which hold up all of human society. An exploration of cake reveals the history of us all.

Order a La Brioche (Cake) 1763 by Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin

So, that’s “what” cake is, and why it’s important. For me, I think it’s the best way to start the conversation I wish more writers had: how do you look at something as ubiquitous as food and build a world around it? Because you need to, whenever you write, wherever you’re writing about. Food and food production literally make empires, force migration, and start wars. Food made us.

And if we’re going to talk about it, why not start with dessert?

This month, we’re going to look at the earliest known recipe for cake, and what it would have taken to bake them at that time. We’re going to follow the evolution of cake through the centuries, and watch as it travels the globe, becoming the sweet treat we know and love today. Cakes will rise, recipes will change, and dessert will be shaped by war, politics, and pop psychology. By the end of the month, if you’ve read along with these posts, you’ll arrive at the middle of the 20th century, where we’ll delve into how mid-century American housewives became convinced to see cakes–and cake making–in a whole new light.

Cakes, 1963 (© Wayne Thiebaud / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY)

When possible, I’ll share the recipes I tried out in the process of researching and writing about cakes. When we reach the conclusion, I’ll post my reading list and some hopefully-helpful hints that might keep you from making the same mistakes I did. Please feel free to ask questions, and I’ll answer them as best I can.

Thank you for reading! I look forward to sharing cake history with you.

New Patreon Reward Tiers and Goals!

When Patreon decided to change how my supporters were billed, I argued against it. I believe that any fees charged should come out of my income, just like with any other service I use to reach my readers and fans. To help make up for you paying more, I updated my goals and rewards to give you more. Luckily, Patreon heard enough to cancel their planned fees, so you won’t be billed extra for wanting to help me.

I still want to give you more, though. So, you’re going to get it.

Beginning right now, I’ll be writing a complete story for you each month. (For examples of my other writing, check out this sorted list of fiction here.) My goals have been updated to show how long a piece of fiction you can get. At $50 a month, you’ll find a 500-word micro fiction, written just for my patrons. When we reach $100 a month, you’ll get a 1000-word flash fiction story that won’t be published anywhere else. Each additional $50 a month adds another 500 words to the total story length, so at $250 a month, you’ll get a 2500 word original story each month.

At $300 a month, I’ll start recording myself reading that month’s story! You’ll be able to read it online and listen to the audio. (Again, these are original pieces that you can’t find anywhere else.) Plus, you’ll still see the secret news and updates, writing thoughts, and other tidbits you’ve already had access to. That won’t change.

The more supporters that I have, the more you each get. Working together, you all are helping me to keep the lights on while I write, more than any one person could do alone.

Also starting this month, I have 5 levels of support that you can choose from, and special rewards for each:

Tentacles ($1 or more per month) Thank you! Everyone who pledges at any level will get monthly updates not available anywhere else, which might include secret news (personal or professional), excerpts from my current writing projects, random drawings, and the occasional recipe. Plus, my appreciation.

The supporters at this level are called Tentacles because no matter how small they are, if you have enough of them, you can drag a whaling ship to the bottom of the sea.

Glittering Eyes ($3 or more per month) Thank you very much! Patrons at this level will get access to all of my regular monthly content, plus you’ll get a digital copy of my bi-annual zine delivered to you every Spring and Fall.

Supporters at this level are called Glittering Eyes because you only need a few to get the job done, but having a lot of them certainly makes an impact.

Whispering Tongues ($5.00+ per month) Extra special thank you! Pledge at this level to get access to all of my regular monthly content and the digital edition of my bi-annual zine, plus: Every Winter and Summer, I’ll mail out a physical postcard with a haiku or microfiction, just for you.

Supporters at this level are called Whispering Tongues because even if they aren’t connected, with enough of them, the world is a very different place. Or at least, a dark room certainly is.

Gaping Maws ($10.00+ per month)

Thank you, thank you, thank you! Supporters at this level will get access to all of my regular monthly content, plus you’ll get a PHYSICAL copy of my bi-annual zine mailed out to you every Spring and Fall. This limited edition, hand-crafted, publication will include original writing and art, and will be signed and numbered. (You’ll also have access to the digital copy of the zine, and will get the Winter and Summer postcards.)

These patrons are called Gaping Maws because you really only need one to change your life… but the more you have, the more sure you can be that your immediate future is going to be very different than the one you imagined.


Dread Cultists ($20.00+ per month)

I can’t possibly thank you enough.

Patrons at $20 and above will be invited to join me in a regular monthly online chat (times and dates to be determined) where we can talk about how I work, what I write  or what you want to see from me, or where I get my ideas. Or, very possibly, my thoughts on the robot/dinosaur uprising our secret overlords have scheduled for 2019.

And! Supporters at this level will also get access to all of my regular monthly content, plus you’ll get a PHYSICAL copy of my bi-annual zine mailed out to you every Spring and Fall. This limited edition, hand-crafted, publication will include original writing and art, and will be signed and numbered. You’ll also have the digital copy of the zine, and will get the Winter and Summer postcards.

Basically: you get everything.

Patrons at this level are called Dread Cultists because with just a couple of you, we could reshape my world entirely. All it takes is a few true believers and a willingness to summon… whatever might happen next.

So please, tell your friends. Help me find new patrons, and together we can create new fiction every month.

Thank you.

PS. Pledge your support, or change your level of support, here. If you sign up now, you’ll get access to all of the posts I’ve written so far as well as everything coming up!

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A variety of non-denominational winter stamps have been acquired.

I’m trying to be less of a “reclusive writer”, reaching out by mail to people I know well, and I realize this could be an opportunity not just to celebrate the friendships I have, but to expand the new friendships I’d like to build on. Since last year’s attempt to send out a bunch of holiday* cards was successful, I’m doing it again this year. So… who wants one?

Anyone who signs up by Wednesday Dec 20 should get their card before Christmas; I’m sending out cards all this month though; if you don’t see this post before Wednesday, feel free to add yourself anyway, and I’ll make certain you’re included. (I’ve sent out a bunch this week already, so if you’ve already gotten an email from me about it, you’re covered.)

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